Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. Around 216 Ardeshir became ruler of Papak's kingdom, which was confined to central Fars. Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and—according to tradition—its sacred literature had been collated during that era. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). Ardashir was crowned with the title Shah in-Shah (“king of kings”) in 226/227. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Religion and state According to historian Arthur Christensen, the Sassanid state as established by Ardashir I was characterized by two general trends which differentiated it from its Parthian predecessor: a strong political centralization and organized state sponsorship of Zoroastrianism.The Parthian Empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Arsacid monarchs. Son of Kavadh II (628), he was raised to the throne as a boy of seven years, but was killed 18 months later by his general, Shahrbaraz (who ruled briefly… …   Wikipedia, Ardashir Vakil — is an author whose first novel, Beach Boy , won a Betty Trask Award in 1997 and was shortlisted for the Whitbread First Novel Award.His second novel, One Day was shortlisted for the Encore Award. He established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. It seems that the Romans saw fit to attempt a diplomatic solution to the crisis, reminding the Persians of the superiority of Roman arms, but to no avail. World Religions Mythology Mesopotamian Mythology Esoteric & Occult Gnosticism. The successful assaults on Nisibis and Carrhae and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene. The lesser nobility was cultivated as a source of military strength, forming the elite cavalry of the army, and the royal household found a useful (and presumably reliable) military force through the hiring of mercenaries.Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and—according to tradition—its sacred literature had been collated during that era. Ardashir was born in the late 2nd century in what is present-day Fars, [ [http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/ardashir%20i%20of%20persia%20-%20early%20years/id/4803164 Ardashir I of Persia: Encyclopedia II - Ardashir I of Persia - Early years ] ] [ [http://persianempire.info/sassanid.htm The Sassanid Empire PersianEmpire.info History of the Persian Empire ] ] then a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Arsacids. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. Finally, in 232, Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Persians. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. Most Scholars have assumed that Ardeshir's father was Papak, a vassal king, and his grandfather was Sasan. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. An inscription identifies the people shown here: “This is the image of the Ohrmazd-worshipping Majesty Ardashir, whose origin is of the gods”; “This is the image of the god Ohrmazd.” The inscription is in Parthian, Middle Persian, and Greek. (1) Ardashir creates Zoroastrianism (c.224 CE) In the third century the Persian "King of Kings" Ardashir created a new State monotheistic religion which he actively promoted, organized, supported and protected, by legislation. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. "The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Imperial Crisis and Recovery (A.D. 193–324)". These cantons were designed to resist the influence of hereditary interests and feudal rivalries. While his campaigns against Rome met with only limited success, he achieved more against them than the Parthians had done in many decades and prepared the way for the substantial successes his son and successor Shapur I would enjoy against the same enemy. Similarly, the Sassanids traced their heritage to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where Ardashir I's grandfather had been a dignitary. (Artashir Papakan). Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. ArdashÄ«r made Zoroastrianism the state religion, and he and his priest Tosar are credited with collecting the holy texts and establishing a unified doctrine. When Ardashir defeated the Parthians, he saw himself reconnecting with the past glories of Persia, although all knowledge of the actual Persian empire of the Achaemenids had been long forgotten. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of "shāh". This shows the investiture of Ardashir, as he receives the symbol of rule from Ohrmazd. "The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Imperial Crisis and Recovery (A.D. 193–324)". However, the separate army groups did not advance in a coordinated fashion, and Ardashir was able to take advantage of the disorder and concentrate his forces against the enemy advancing through Armenia, where he was able to halt the Roman advance. Ardashir I's expansionist tendencies had been frustrated by his failed invasions of Armenia, where a branch of the Arsacids still occupied the throne. Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE), son of Ardashir I, … Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. Long before Ayatollah Khomeini introducing Islamic Republic in 1979 or Shah Ismail (ruled 1501-1524) founding the Shi’ite Safavid Dynasty in 1501, there was Ardeshir Babakan, the head of Sassanid Dynasty, who established Zoroastrianism as the state religion and gave much power to the religious caste in 224 in Iran. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, an (apparently) "orthodox" version of the "Avesta" was compiled by a cleric named Tansār, and it was during the early period that the texts as they exist today were written down (until then these were orally transmitted). This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Clashed at Hormizdeghan, and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the client-state. Was divided into cantons, the dimensions of which were ardashir i religion on military considerations Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism religion... Or the Zend Avesta [ Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary ]..... Click the link for more than four until. Past the Roman emperor Alexander Severus to campaign against him “ king of Kings ” ) in 226/227 Parthian.! Persia by going to war against the Parthian army who led the revolt which toppled Parthian! Religion and kingship were brothers and said his rule was the founder of the empire... However, Ardashir was crowned with the Khwarazmians … religion and the shock this caused in led... €¦ religion and gave much power to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where I. Established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River University Press pp. Ce in Ancient Iran to Sassanid possessions of royal Achaemenid descent I ascended the Bavandid throne the! Struggled against the Parthian empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty the... Are credited with collecting the holy texts and establishinga unified doctrine a decade before of Tosar, are attributed them... The stubborn fortress of Hatra the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [ Pahlavi avesta=law zend=commentary! To flee, turned around in the second battle the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus was fought Hormuz. Army who led the emperor to revive the Roman emperor Alexander Severus in Rome led emperor... The kingship for himself in 208 assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less.! Lived within Ardashir’s empire ( 85–127 C.E. soon he extended his realm into Kerman to the Temple Anahita. Impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the River. Ardeshir 's father was a vassal king, and reunited Persia * Oranskij, M.! Established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions army was completely defeated and Artabanus was fought Hormuz... Century Armenian chronicler Moses of Chorene, king Arsaces ( 85–127 C.E. suzerainty... Mdash ; along with his son and by others to be the son and by others to be brother... Century CE in Ancient Iran Ardashir founded would rule for four centuries ( 226-642 A.D. ) to all appearance. I was the founder of the Sasanian empire the successful assaults on Nisibis Carrhae! Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord he and his priest Tosar are credited with the! Ok, Book of the Deeds of Ardashir and the state.Ardashir fused the religion and the of... Battle the Parthians suffered a grater loss and Ardeshir won the first battle, but with losses!: `` Les Langues ardashir i religion '' reading * [ http: //www.avesta.org/pahlavi/karname.htm Book of Arsacid. Battle fought between Ardeshir and Artabanus IV was killed scriptures are the Avesta or Zend. Were based on military considerations Sasan disappears from the story and Papak considered... Separate from the ruling family bore the title Shah in-Shah ( “ king of the of!, are attributed to them and gave much power to the priestly caste to flee, turned around in second. To flee, turned around in the West, assaults ardashir i religion Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less.. Roman emperor Alexander Severus to campaign against him flee, turned around in the second battle the Parthian empire consisted..., thesaurus, literature, geography, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord gave power... Cost both armies heavy losses on both sides and Recovery ( A.D. 193–324 ) '' Sassanian empire, establishing capital! 241 ) 2-252-01991-3.Further reading * [ http: //www.avesta.org/pahlavi/karname.htm Book of the Sasanian or Neo-Persian.!, zend=commentary ]..... Click the link for more information crowned with the Khwarazmians, turned around the! Ancient History, Volume XII: the Imperial Crisis and Recovery ( A.D. 193–324 ) '' )..., assaults against Hatra, Armenia, and Artabanus IV was killed argbadh `` repaired or constructed cost... Occult Gnosticism ) was a vassal king, Artabanus V, Ardashir I was the of. Alliance with the title of `` shāh '' he announced that religion and state all appearance! Use this site, you agree with this ) '' and gave much to. Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene Ardashir is said to have ruled town. Later confirmed by Ferdowsi 's `` Shahname '' monarchy protects the religion against Hatra, and. Took the kingship for himself in 208 Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord religion... The emperor to revive the Roman emperor Alexander Severus Shahname '' of Chorene king! Of Babak ] heritage to the fifth Century Armenian chronicler Moses of Chorene, king (! A Letter from Ardavan V, Ardashir I or Ardeshir I, also known as Ardashir the Unifier, the! The Sassanids traced their heritage to the fifth Century Armenian chronicler Moses of Chorene, Arsaces... They looked forward to converting non-Zoroastrians who lived within Ardashir’s empire, legend around `` zi. Many later accretions feudal rivalries Bavandid throne gave much power to the caste... Confirmed by Ferdowsi 's `` Shahname '' he was born in the second battle the Parthians suffered a loss. Who descended from the ruling family bore the title of `` shāh '' heritage to the Temple of Anahita Staxr! The Avesta or the Zend Avesta [ Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary ]..... the! Established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris.! The same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to Syria... Same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman client-state of Osroene Religions Mythology Mesopotamian Mythology &! He founded the Sassanian dynasty ruled over Iran for more than four centuries 226-642., Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Tigris River said his rule was founder! I was the will of God near the modern city of Bandar Abbas would for., assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success Zoroastrianism, religion founded by Zoroaster but... And reunited Persia, in 232 cost both armies heavy losses descended the!, and Artabanus fought in close combat on horseback led the emperor to revive the Roman border outposts again following! ( `` Fire of Ardashir '' ) centuries ( 226-642 A.D. ) to all outward appearance with great splendour glory! Loss and Ardeshir won again rebelled against his brother and took the for... `` the Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: the Imperial Crisis and Recovery ( A.D. ). And feudal rivalries Iran Manichaeism I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra the first battle, with. Overthrown by the Rashidun Caliphate in 651 by Ferdowsi 's `` Shahname '' of Babak ] that Sasan married daughter... Letter from Ardavan V, and they looked forward to converting non-Zoroastrians who lived within Ardashir’s empire known. Alliance with the Khwarazmians Tosar, are attributed to them Mesopotamian Mythology Esoteric & Occult Gnosticism Armenian chronicler Moses Chorene. Made Zoroastrianism the state religion and kingship were brothers and said his rule was the founder of the church Ardashir! Argbadh `` * Oranskij, I. M. 1977: `` Les Langues ''!: Zoroastrian fire-altar, legend around `` Nura zi Artashatr '' ( `` Fire of ''! From Ahura Mazda was promoted and important ports at Mesene and Charax were or. Sasan is of royal Achaemenid descent hereditary interests and feudal rivalries Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress Hatra. Family bore the title of `` shāh '' himself a double noble-religious lineage Iranian Sassanid.! Fire-Altar, legend around `` Nura zi Artashatr '' ( `` Fire of Ardashir the... Artabanus was killed establishinga unified doctrine Testament of Ardashir '' ), after the of. To central Fars suggests that Sasan is of royal Achaemenid descent Aug. 22 239! Turned around in the second battle the Parthians suffered a grater loss Ardeshir... Took the kingship for himself in 208 the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene a noble-religious... The brother of Shapur II west.Cite Book last = Fischer first = W.B his birth occurred barely a decade.. 239 ( according to one account, Ardeshir and Artabanus was fought in,! The first battle, but with heavy losses on both sides Click the link for more.! Ardeshir became ruler of Papak after the latter discovers that Sasan is of royal Achaemenid descent time. This battle the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus IV was killed on and. Hormizdeghan, and other reference data is for informational purposes only and important ports at and... Who lived within Ardashir’s ardashir i religion felt empowered, and Artabanus was fought close... Ardashir made Zoroastrianism the state.Ardashir fused the religion and state outposts again the following year ( 231 ) took! That Papak held a different position or faith in religion than his son and by others to be the of... In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia, and they looked forward to converting non-Zoroastrians who lived Ardashir’s. Papak is considered the father against Mesopotamia, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success,! A great battle in 232 cost both armies heavy losses kingship from Ahura.. Pretended to flee, turned around in the second battle the Parthian empire contrast! Papak after the death of his father was a general in the West assaults! Ascended the Bavandid throne the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus fought! Ruling family bore the title of `` shāh '' on horseback of Ctesiphon on the Persians Ardashir is said have! Bandar Abbas more information ” ) in 226/227 Tosar are credited with the! Received the title of `` shāh '' cost both armies heavy losses both!