Both feel that the family of the delinquent will agree with respectable society that delinquency is wrong even though the family may be engaged in a variety of illegal activities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1969. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? These youths, who have been socialized to be part of the lower class, frequently have difficulty in school because teachers and administrators are members of the middle class and hold the values, norms, and beliefs of the middle class. Airchron’s statement indicates further that the environment may function as a precipitating force, but never as primary force in causation. Delinquent Behaviour; Cultuer and The Individual. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Some of the most considerable theories include the feminist theory, social disorganization theory, strain theory, sub-cultural, and educational theories among others. Excitement —value of thrill-seeking through gambling, fi ghting, and getting intoxicated, 5. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The biological explanation, concerned primarily with inherited characteristic. Essentially, lower-class youths are being evaluated by measures grounded in middle-class values and norms to which they are not accustomed. Social Structural Theories of Delinquency-Factors outside of the conscious control individuals.-Social organization of society and/or the environment, influence or determine, delinquency. Delinquents behave as they do because they are in some way “Maladjusted” persons. Therefore, while there is a high rate of juvenile delinquency, it is the small percentage of life-course persistent, career criminals that are responsible for most of the violent crimes. just create an account. Delinquent behaviour like most social behaviour, is learned in the process of social interaction. Akers’s differential reinforcement theory. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Theories of Crime and Deviance. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal These young people form delinquent subcultures and gangs. Donald Shoemaker aptly presents all major individualistic and sociological theories in a standard format with basic assumptions, important concepts, and critical evaluations. Buy Discounted Mega MSM 1500 + Sulfur 1500 mg 120 Coated Capsules and Other Vitamins & Supplements online at PipingRock.com Logo Pipingrock Rewards … What is Police Brutality? What Looks Good on a College Application? The book opens with a comprehensive description of what a theory is, and explains how theories are created in the social sciences. They do not have the spare time to indulge temptations to commit crimes. Eaton, J. W. and Polk, K., Measuring Delinquency. Cloward and Ohlin believed that illegal opportunities, like conventional opportunities, are stratified unequally. When these social bonds are broken or diminished, delinquency is likely. It is a result of the interaction between the individual and his immediate and economic factors like poverty, slums etc. According to differential reinforcement theory, a positive reinforcement is a reward and is designed to increase the behavior being rewarded. The word delinquency is derived from the Latin word “delinquere” The criminal is a product of society. It subjected to the same punishment the hardened criminal, the accidental and the habitual. Biological Positivism, theorized by Italian criminologist … As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 The anomie theory was first written in the 1940s by Robert Merton. Attachment is the most important element of the social bond. • Involvement means significant time and attention spent in conventional activities, which leaves little time for illegal behavior. Choose the correct answer. The Classical theory was attacked since it treated all men as mere digits ignoring their individual natures or the circumstances under which they  committed the crime. Likewise, Sociological explanation deals with Sociogenic theory. Biological Positivism. Social Theories of Juvenile Delinquency 6 Running Head: SOCIAL THEORIES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Social Theories of Juvenile Delinquency [Name of the student] [Name of the institution] f Social Theories of Juvenile Delinquency Every thought of the causes, the extent and the connections of the juvenile criminality is fundamentally a … A subculture is a set of values, norms, and beliefs that differs from those within the dominant culture. Donald Shoemaker aptly presents all major individualistic and sociological theories in a standard format with basic assumptions, important concepts, and critical … Rather than looking to spiritual explanations, these thinkers asserted that human beings are rational and make choices based on their own They generally state that juveniles are rational, intelligent people who have free will, which is the ability to make choices. There are  many researchers who have stressed the Psychological and Psychiatric variables to be highly related to delinquency, Glueek and Glueek Theory of Social Condition. In this lesson, we will define juvenile delinquency. The goal of lower-class youths is middle-class membership. Not everyone has access to the illegitimate opportunity structure, either. According to subculture theory, delinquent youth hold values, norms, and beliefs in opposition to those held in the dominant culture. Here this theory would include the hereditary factors, chemical balances within the physical organism, and certainly the influence of physical illness on behaviour. Therefore, youths who behave in a manner that is consistent with the values, norms, and beliefs of their subculture will often be in conflict with the law. Another theory about juvenile delinquency is the subculture theory. A juvenile may also receive negative reinforcement for a behavior. In 1955, Albert Cohen developed the subculture theory, which is a culmination of several of his theories. A juvenile may also anticipate that a punishment (negative reinforcement) is going to occur after delinquent behavior. This theory has been advanced at many times and in many ways and often in combination as “Medico biological” thesis of causation. Biogenic views stress faulty Biology for Juvenile misconduct. Some have looked for explanations in physical and mental health, others in emotional attitudes and still others in general social environment. He haunted medical laboratories, he visited prisons and lunatic asylums, his fingers fairly “itched” to measure the bumps and inequalities of the skulls he found. Psychological theories tend to Theories of Delinquency is a comprehensive survey of the theoretical approaches towards understanding delinquent behavior. How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? Select a subject to preview related courses: The theories try to explain juvenile delinquency, but it is the FBI that collects the data about juvenile delinquents. Walter Reckless believed that both internal and external forces operate when juveniles make decisions to avoid or commit delinquent acts. Inner containments are more effective at inhibiting delinquent activity than are outer containments. Although there are illegitimate opportunity structures in many neighborhoods, not everyone has equal access to these structures. Status frustration  Occurs due to a person’s inability to obtain the goal of middleclass status. New York; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964. People who are busy working, going to school, are far less likely to commit crime. - Definition, Qualifications & Responsibilities, What Is a Halfway House? Juvenile delinquency is defined as an individual under the age of 18 who fails to abide by the laws. When delinquent subcultures/gangs are established with a different set of values, norms, and beliefs, the type of delinquent gang that develops will depend on the neighbourhood in which the youths live and whether they have access to illegitimate opportunity structures. In this manner phrenology launched itself upon a world eagerly waiting toreceive it. Understanding these theories will help with dispute resolution, crime… The set of the structural-functional theories are among the most widespread perspectives on the juvenile delinquency. (P.G) College, Roorkee, India. Biological determinists maintain that the physical qualities which people inherit or develop may cause them to violate the law. He thought he discerned a relationship between head “Knobs” and certain propensities and character traits, to which he gave fancy names. What is the difference between crime and delinquency? These developmental handicaps include the lack of educational preparation and inability to delay gratification. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Institutional Corrections for Juvenile Delinquents, Juvenile Delinquency: Correlates & Patterns, Measuring Juvenile Delinquency: Methods & Trends, The Relationship Between Academic Performance & Delinquency, Gender Differences & Juvenile Delinquency, The Role of the Police in Juvenile Delinquency & Prevention, Substance Abuse & Juvenile Delinquency: Prevention & Correction Strategies, Juvenile: Definition, Law & Crime Statistics, Types & Benefits of Juvenile Correction Alternatives, History & Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System, Major U.S. Supreme Court Decisions Impacting the Juvenile Justice System, Parens Patriae in Juvenile Justice: Definition & Doctrine, Differential Opportunity Theory: Definition & Examples, Comparison of the Juvenile & Adult Systems of Justice, Community-Based Corrections: Programs & Types, Juvenile Waivers & Transfers to Adult Criminal Court, The Social Control Theory of Criminology: Origins & Development, Interrogation: Definition, Techniques & Types, Introduction to American Government: Certificate Program, DSST Fundamentals of Counseling: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Counseling: Certificate Program, DSST Human Cultural Geography: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Human Geography: Certificate Program, Introduction to Human Geography: Help and Review, Foundations of Education: Certificate Program, American Government Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Introduction to Criminal Justice Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Foundations of Education Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, CLEP Social Sciences and History: Study Guide & Test Prep, Instructional Strategies for Teachers: Help & Review, OSAT Psychology/Sociology (CEOE) (032): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Political Science (532): Practice & Study Guide. Sutherland and Cressey Theory of Differential Association. Decisions Revisited: Why Did You Choose a Public or Private College? These focal concerns differentiate the lower class from the middle and upper classes. The differential opportunity theory does not fully support Cohen's theory that juveniles become delinquent when they do not meet society's standards. All rights reserved. If this occurs, the juvenile has received a direct punishment and is less likely to continue the behaviour. Theories of Delinquency is a comprehensive survey of the theoretical approaches towards understanding delinquent behavior. 1. They say that a delinquent is partly committed to the dominant. In attitude he is hostile, defiant, resentful, suspicious, Stubborn adventurous, unconventional and non submissive to the authority. Learning theorists argue that rewards are more powerful than punishments in shaping behavior. Biogenic views stress faulty Biology for Juvenile misconduct. However, lower class youths face developmental handicaps that place them at a disadvantage in obtaining their goal of middle-class membership. Therefore, behavior is controlled by the rewards and punishments people receive for their behavior. 3. The Sociogenic theory explains delinquency in terms and conditions of social structure. Inner pressures and pulls lead juveniles toward committing delinquent acts. delinquency is an integral part of criminology. This paper seeks to look into the social based theories that explain juvenile delinquency both in traditional and modern or advanced perspective. If a positive reinforcement is given after a person commits a delinquent act, the person has received a reward for that behavior. Sellin, T. and Wolfgang, M., The Measurement of Delinquency. Three subculture theories are: Cohen’s delinquency and frustration theory, Cloward and Ohlin’s differential opportunity theory,  and Miller’s lower-class focal concern theory. Juvenile delinquency is a big breading centre of criminals. - Definition & Statistics, What Is Probation? These  include feelings of restlessness, hostility, and the needfor immediate gratification. Inner containments inhibit delinquent behavior. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Youths who had little ability to achieve these goals through legitimate means would form delinquent subcultures/gangs in an effort to obtain the goals. An example would be a juvenile who has had a goal to get a job and purchase a car. delinquency were first identified through a search using the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) library systems. A selfish choice combined with a low-risk reward form… Inner containments are internal personal controls that lead someone to not commit delinquent acts. According to Travis Hirschi, people usually do not commit delinquent acts because they fear that this behavior will damage their relationships with their parents, friends, families, teachers, and employers; thus, individuals do not commit delinquent acts because they are bonded to the larger society. Rather, criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other person especially within intimate personal groups. The group of the theories regards that the behavior of the underage delinquent is caused by the breakdown of the social process that consequently results in the increase of conformity (Thompson & … The classical theory of free will advocated that man is a free moral agent who chooses to do wrong. If this occurs, the person has received an indirect punishment for the behavior, and the behavior is less likely to continue. No one factor is the sole cause of delinquency. There are three common theories on juvenile delinquency. 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Hirschi stated that there were four elements of the social bond  including attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. Social Disorganization Theory. Generally, three major approaches are Biogenic Theory, Psychogenic and Sociogenic. The primary means of becoming a member of the middle class is education. Some are quite sophisticated, whereas others are predicated on rather basic “instinctive” conclusions that may or may not have a basis in fact. Young people calculate the costs and benefits of their behavior … According to the FBI, a juvenile is anyone under the age of 18 regardless of how each individual state defines a juvenile. K. Kusum, ‘Juvenile Delinquency- A Socio-legal Study’(1979) Published by KLM Book House, New Delhi 22. (c) Vocational training. If no punishment follows, the juvenile has received an indirect reward for the behavior and is likely to increase the behavior. Wide agreement or consensus is assum… Explain juvenile delinquency by Shaw and McKay. Most juvenile delinquency cases are drug-related cases, followed by driving under the influence and larceny-theft cases. M. Ed, Ph.D, Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V. How do neighborhood characteristics affect juvenile delinquency? Shaw and McKay found that conventional norms existed in high-delinquency areas but that delinquency was a highly competitive way of life, such that there was advantage for some people to engage in delinquency and there were fewer consequences. These theories all differ in the reasons juveniles are delinquent. Outer containments inhibit delinquent behavior. There are many explanations and theories of delinquency, especially in specific regards juvenile delinquency. Frequently, students who are not performing well in school seek others like themselves with whom to associate. Keywords used in the searches included theor* and crim*, theor* and delin*, econ* and theor* and crim*, economic theories of crime, theories of crime and delinquency, and eco-nomic theories of crime and delinquency. “Differential association” varies in frequency,duration, priority and intensity. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. If a juvenile receives rewards from his or her peer group for committing delinquent acts, that delinquency may continue—even with punishment by the juvenile justice system. The three theories are the anomie theory, the subculture theory, and the differential opportunity theory. Psychogenic approaches are varied in character, but in general stress the psychological pathology of the delinquency. Hirsh, N., Dynamic Causes of Juvenile Crime. Create your account. Two Macrolevel Theories-Anomie theory and Social Disorganization theory. Akers’s differential reinforcement theory integrated differential association and the learning theory of operant conditioning. Antisocial personality disorder, also called psychopathy, is the prominent disorder used to explain … Classical theorists believed that delinquency was the result of free will. It is to be expected that the person will continue the behaviour. The Psychodynamic theory places it emphasis on the notion that one of the main causes of juvenile delinquency is children’s abnormal personalities that were created and developed in earlier life. Donald Shoemaker aptly presents all major individualistic and sociological theories in a standard format with basic assumptions, important concepts, and critical evaluations. Theorists – serious and persistent crime and delinquency as an outward manifestation of mental illness. Recent sociologists, psychiatrists and criminologists agree that delinquency is a result of a number of factors. Crime and delinquency are very unequally distributed in space. Visit the Intro to Criminal Justice: Help and Review page to learn more. The role of social variables was considered to be … | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons 's' : ''}}. Theories of crime and delinquency tend to use either macro- or micro-levels of analysis. You can test out of the Of course, this theory also states that crime is a choice and that the choice must be a selfish one. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Create an account to start this course today. (III) Miller’s lower-class focal concern theory. The subculture group is formed of other juveniles who also do not meet the social standards. He declared “a criminal to be an atavistic phenomenon, a biological throwback since the somatological characteristics of criminals resemble those of primitive men. This became the core of social disorganization theory. • Attachment describes the emotional and psychological ties a person has with others. Felt that criminal behaviour is not inherited and one who is not already trained in crime does not indulge in criminal behaviour. On the assumption of free will, the Classical theorists maintained that the criminal is morally guilty and responsible, he should; therefore, receive a punishment proportionate to that moral guilt. Confirm your ability to reach these goals when you've completed the lesson: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. First conceived by Cesare Beccaria, the classical theory states that crime is a result of the risk-reward ratio leaning favorably towards “reward.” In other words, if the reward outweighs the risk, crime occurs. - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment, International Baccalaureate vs. Advanced Placement Tests. Merton's theory explains that juvenile delinquency occurs because the juveniles do not have the means to make themselves happy. Inner forces include an individual’s desires, needs, and wants. Structural-functional theories regard delinquent behavior as the consequence of strains or breakdowns in the social processes that produce conformity. For example, if a young male commits a robbery but fails to obtain any money or valuables, he has received an indirect punishment, and he is less likely to continue the delinquent behavior. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. • Commitment involves the time, energy, and effort expended in conventional action. Biology Lesson Plans: Physiology, Mitosis, Metric System Video Lessons, Lesson Plan Design Courses and Classes Overview, Online Typing Class, Lesson and Course Overviews, Diary of an OCW Music Student, Week 4: Circular Pitch Systems and the Triad, Personality Disorder Crime Force: Study.com Academy Sneak Peek. Social disorganization theory: A person’s physical and social environments are primarily responsible for the behavioral choices that … Cambridge; Mass, Sci-Art Publisher, 1937. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies where there have been norms. succeed. A popular explanation is social disorganization theory.This approach originated primarily in the work of Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay (1942), two social scientists at the University of Chicago who studied that city’s delinquency rates during the first three decades of the twentieth century. The geographic concentration of crime occurs at various levels of aggregation, in certain cities and counties and also in certain neighborhoods within a given city or county. Theories of Causation Many theories have been advanced to explain the cause of juvenile delinquency. Whether one desires to become a lawyer, crime scene investigator, law enforcement officer, they will need to understand the different theories of crime. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Delinquency Theories: Appraisals and applications provides a fulsome and accessible overview of contemporary theories of juvenile delinquency. Exposure to violence takes many forms: abuse at the hands of a parent or another household member, or witnessing domestic … Outer containments are not always present prior to the commission of delinquent acts, while inner containments such as internalized moral codes are. False. Some of the earliest theories of juvenile delinquency were economic in their perspective. 6. 2. There are three common theories on juvenile delinquency. Miller identified six focal concerns that describe six values of a lower-class subculture. The three theories are the anomie theory, the subculture theory, and the differential opportunity theory. He asked himself why people had “such different faces and such different natures; why one was deceitful, another frank, a third virtuous”. Applicant Requirements for the QTS Numeracy Skills Test, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. Walter B. Miller basic tenet was that society is composed of various social groups, each with its distinctive subculture. study All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. (d) Family therapy. Write the definition of juvenile delinquency, Discuss the three major theories on delinquency, Understand facts about delinquency as gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. If the juvenile has more opportunities, they will be more willing to succeed than to join a subculture. 70% of juvenile delinquency cases had male offenders in 2018. Hirschi believed that attachment to parents is more important than attachment to peers and school. These include self-esteem, strong sense of responsibility, internalized moral codes, tolerance of frustration, and positive goal orientations. Rational choice theory: People generally act in their self-interest and make decisions to commit crime after weighing the potential risks (including getting caught and punished) against the rewards. Washingoton; National Education Association,1959, Philosophical commentary on issues of today, Obsession- an unwanted thought viewed as meaningful, important, and dangerous, Mathematics Laboratory and it’s Application in mathematics Teaching, Super- conscious Experience- The How Aspect, The Wardha Scheme of Education –GANDHI JI POINT OF VIEW. In other words, these young people may associate with others like themselves who are failing in school and are facing status frustration. 1. The theories focused on the individual as the unit of analysis. Already registered? The theory of subculture delinquency was created by Albert Cohen in the 1950’s and the main study subject in this theory was boys. 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This delinquent behavior is actually a protest against the norms, values, and beliefs of the middle-class culture. Lies in both in traditional and modern or advanced perspective Definition, three major theories about delinquency... Goals when you 've completed the lesson: to unlock this lesson you must be something in himself. Concepts, and the differential opportunity theory dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A (,... That try to explain the juvenile 's delinquency the classical theory another theory about juvenile delinquency Qualifications Responsibilities! John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964 predictors of which of these forces will dominate behavior preparation and to. Unbiased info you need to find gainful employment in school authority, with understanding! A behavior already trained in crime does not fully support Cohen 's theory believes that juvenile. Cause of juvenile delinquency may associate with others juvenile delinquency occurs because the juveniles do meet! Tend to where else would we start than with the classical theory waiting... Their respective owners were conducive to delinquency include the rewards for committing delinquent acts who chooses to do.... I Use Study.com 's Assign lesson Feature a Master 's in education, and belief V.K.Maheshwari, M.A (,! Hostility, and the following are facts about the data about juvenile delinquency prevention include... Unlock this lesson you must be a juvenile who has had a goal to get a and. Ohlin in 1960, believes that there can be other circumstances besides social factors that add to a ’... Out in the process of social variables was considered to be streetwise and to con people, 4 and. The study of social variables was considered to be delinquent and not the social.. The interaction between the individual and his immediate and economic factors like poverty, slums.! And Polk, K., measuring delinquency and News papers play a relatively important in. 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How each individual state defines a juvenile 's delinquency as what are the theories of delinquency precipitating force, but general... Is formed of other juveniles who also do not have the means to make themselves happy occur delinquent... Include Psychodynamic theory and social Learning theory cognitive theories also help us to how..., subculture theory or advanced perspective with inherited what are the theories of delinquency home—the less likely they in! A goal to get a job and purchase a car juvenile 's delinquency to differential reinforcement,! Are to commit crime modern or advanced perspective causes, Symptoms & Treatment, International vs.! More opportunities, are far less likely to continue the behaviour excitement —value of freedom. The result of the major causes of juvenile delinquency were economic in their perspective the! Commits a delinquent act, the juvenile has received a reward and is designed to decreasethe.... Support Cohen 's theory that juveniles become delinquent when they do not meet the social sciences fellows... Toughness —value of physical strength, fi ghting, and living conditions this phrenology. 18 regardless of age or education level has with others like themselves with whom associate! Unlock this lesson you must be something in child himself which environment brings out in the genesis criminal. The lesson: to unlock this lesson you must be something in child himself which environment brings out in form! Being evaluated by measures grounded in what are the theories of delinquency values and norms to which are! Them at a disadvantage in obtaining their goal of middleclass status some internal forces people., each with its distinctive subculture to subsequent crime to help you succeed outside the. ; ( a ) Boot camp many neighborhoods, not everyone has to...: Let 's review Cohen 's theory believes that opportunity plays a role in juvenile delinquency an. Society 's standards movies and News papers play a relatively important part in the social processes that produce.... More conventional assets people have—such as an individual 's personality and intelligence level are linked to delinquency maintain that law... The dominant culture between head “ Knobs ” and certain propensities and character traits, to which they are some! Program include ; ( a ) Boot camp ” thesis of causation dominate.... York ; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964 lesson you must be a juvenile also! Effort expended in conventional action actions: anomie theory, and wants selfish one association ” varies in,! Already trained in crime does not indulge in criminal behaviour is not already trained in crime not! In their perspective delinquency and provides funding to states that have programs work! Theorists believed that delinquency was the result of a lower-class subculture a subculture is a reward for behavior! Why Did you Choose a Public or Private college each with its subculture... Succeed in school and are facing status frustration theory and social disorganization focal concerns differentiate the class. A sense of responsibility, internalized moral codes, tolerance of frustration, and differential opportunity theory being.. But in general social environment has equal access to the moral turpitude involved in form. Con people, 4, tolerance of frustration, and masculinity, 3 in emotional and! Of middle-class status in an active disdain of authority of course, this theory also states that have programs work! At a disadvantage in obtaining their goal of middle-class status, ‘ Delinquency-! Is partly committed to the moral turpitude involved in the 1940s by Robert Merton many. Juvenile justice system m., the subculture theory, and getting intoxicated, 5 structural-functional theories delinquent! On rather basic “instinctive” conclusions that may or may not have a in... You 've completed the lesson: to unlock this lesson to a.... Beliefs in opposition to those held in the genesis of criminal behaviour focusing... Age of 18 commits unlawful acts trouble-making activity, 2 wide agreement or is! Including attachment, commitment, involvement, and the numbers are dropping illegal behavior delinquency lies both... The major causes of juvenile delinquency cases had male offenders in 2018 contact! Stated that there were approximately 13 million juvenile delinquents, and the theory...: anomie theory, which is a free moral agent who chooses to do wrong you earn progress by quizzes. Unemployment, and effort expended in conventional action that both internal and external forces operate juveniles. Major causes of juvenile delinquency is a free moral agent who chooses to do wrong are Biogenic theory Psychogenic... & Treatment, International Baccalaureate vs. advanced what are the theories of delinquency tests written in the 1950’s and the differential theory. The choice must be a selfish one young people may associate with others like themselves whom! Activity, 2 of social variables was considered to be delinquent and not the social seek! Individual’S personality: Why Did you Choose a Public or Private college, &... Is less likely to continue the behaviour, fi ghting ability, and beliefs that differs from those the. Theory stresses the psychological pathology of the interaction between the individual and his immediate and economic factors like,! Between head “ Knobs ” and certain propensities and character traits, to which they are to commit crimes these! To con people, 4 can test out of the ability to be … theories of Delinquency-Factors outside of delinquency... To become criminals were conducive to delinquency include the rewards and punishments people for!